Sagamok Anishnawbek First Nation
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Through the Looking Glass

Barron, Marcia Hoyle  "Finding Our Way: Paths to Justice Reform in an Aboriginal Community"  McMaster University [Thesis: Graduate Degree Doctor of Philosophy  271pages], 1998.   https://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk2/ftp03/NQ50982.pdf

 

Abstract:  This applied participatory action research explores the context for community-based justice and conflict resolution mechanisms in Sagamok Anishnawbek First nation.  Within the pluralistic Canadian context, Aboriginal ways of law and social control are being reasserted by some First Nations both as a basic right, and as a means of "healing" their communities of the debilitating effects of colonization.  This research shows a community in flux, where jural values are divergent and changing, but one in which a distinctive approach to some aspects of social disruption and its resolution is apparent.  Like a number of other Aboriginal communities, Sagamok experiences a high level of interpersonal violence, and "mischief" committed by youths in need of improved life opportunities.  Community members indicated through this research that they eschew incarceration for most offences in favour of a communicative, rehabilitative response to crimes.  They want to strengthen communicative ties to young offenders and use local resources to address their behaviours.  in this and other basic jural values, Sagamok Anishnawbek have shown a preference for restorative justice whereby restitution and reparation take place within a personally relevant social context.  In doing so, they model recent "innovation" in criminal case processing.  Restoring justice goes fare beyond dealing with crime, however, to addressing intracommunal conflicts and tensions.  At present, the values and norms relating to conflict and its resolution revealed through this research are manifest chiefly at the individual level.  if a justice model is to be developed, such basics need to be discussed and debated at the community level, through communicative processes such as community consultations.  If Sagamok residents are to discuss and debate these building blocks of a justice system and develop a locally appropriate model, they will need to address some fundamental community development needs, one of which is the need for processes of conflict resolution within and between family groups. 

 

 

Toulouse, Pamela Rose  "Bimaadziwin (The Good Life): Sharing the Living Teachings of the People of Sagamok Anishnawbek Implications for Education"  University of British Columbia [Thesis: Graduate Degree Doctor of Philosophy, Department of Educational Studies  253pages], 2001       https://open.library.ubc.ca/cIRcle/collections/ubctheses/831/items/1.0055503

 

Abstract:  This research is a presentation of the living teachings of the people of Sagamok First Nation; an Anishinabek (Ojibwe, Odawa and Pottawatomi) community located midway on the northern shores of Lake Huron in the province of Ontario.  It is a conceptual exploration into the lived notion of bimaadziwin (primary translation is the goodlife) as defined by this community.  This account is not only socio-historical, but is philosophical as well, offering an intimate journey into the lives of a People that have survived, struggled with and resisted the colonial process.  Their living voices and lived stories embody the hope, dreams and examples of the reality of a People deriving from a strong culture, tradition and language.  The experiences, philosophies and worldview of the People of Sagamok are presented textually (words, interviews, poetry) and symbolically (material documents, archival work, photos) in order to show the beauty and tensions of a community in reconstruction. 

This research is Ojibwe research, an insider's deliberate attempt to understand the nature of her home.  This research is also an investigation of the "his/story" of Anishinabek education, as embedded in a larger structure of imperialist domination and the future of Anishinabek education, as moving towards the recovery and honouring of "our knowledge".  This body of work exemplifies emerging research methodologies that are reflexive and respectful of First Nation's protocols, shedding the boundaries of investigative practices beyond the colonial gaze. 

 

 

Owl, Natalie Julie  "Effects of the Intergenerational Residential School Experience and Negative Racial Stereotyping on Ojibwe Speech Patterns in Mid-Northern Ontario Anishnawbek"  University of Regina [Thesis: Graduate degree Master of Arts (Interdisciplinary), 247 pages] 2016.

http://ourspace.uregina.ca:8080/bitstream/handle/10294/6925/Owl_Natalie_198002911_MA_INTD_Spring2016.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

 

Abstract:  The research project The Effects of the Intergenerational Residential School Experience and Negative Racial Stereotyping on Ojibwe Speech Patterns in mid-Northern Ontario Anishnawbek was undertaken in the Sagamok Anishnawbek First Nation area of mid-Northern Ontario. It was anticipated that three groups of participants would participate: 1) speakers who attended residential school and who lost then subsequently regained their fluency; 2) speakers whose parent(s) attended residential school; and 3) speakers who did not attend or who had minimal attendance at residential school and who never lost their fluency. Instead, two groups of self-identified Ojibwe speakers emerged: 1) those who did not attend the Indian Residential School (IRS) system and 2) those who did attend the IRS system. Within Group Two, three subgroups were identified: those who only attended a day school (sub-group A); those who only attended a residential school (sub-group B); and those who attended both institutions (sub-group C).

 A four-part questionnaire was developed and utilized for the research project: the first part consisted of a 32 component Nishnaabemwin (Ojibwe language) performance assessment with thirty questions and two short narratives while the other three parts focused on issues related to 1) personal background regarding the IRS system, 2) personal views about negative racist stereotypes, and 3) fluency.

 Four key findings of the research project are: 1) there is a strong correlation between a lower Nishnaabemwin performance assessment, a longer length of attendance in the IRS system and a negative rating of this experience; 2) intergenerational Ojibwe language transmission appears to be the most significant effect of the IRS system as members from both Groups One and Two consciously and sub-consciously chose to not speak Ojibwe to their children; 3) the day school experience was ranked more negatively than the residential school experience; and 4) all of the participants experienced racism and negative stereotyping in varying degrees that included a negative impact on Nishnaabemwin usage while exhibiting a resilience in overcoming this historic trauma.

 The project revealed that Sub-group C had the highest scores on the Nishnaabemwin performance assessment and also gave the most positive ratings for their IRS system experience. Significant internal variation and diversity in the Nishnaabemwin utilized by the speakers from Sagamok Anishnawbek was also documented and only one instance of semantic broadening could be co-related to attendance in the IRS system. Finally, it was identified that sociolinguistic factors such as standardization of Nishnaabemwin and lateral violence need to be considered when determining changes to the language.

 

 

 

Eshkakogan, Nicole Andrea  "The Double Estrangement of Aboriginal Elders in Canada: The Case of Sagamok Anishnawbek First Nation"  University of Alberta {Thesis: Graduate degree Master of Arts, Department of Sociology, 157 pages] 2004     http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk4/etd/MQ95628.PDF

 

Overview of the Thesis:  My research is meant to initiate some thinking about the current world that Elders now live in and to draw attention to the situational needs and concerns of Elders who have become doubly estranged.  I want to encourage discussion on issues affecting Elders, such as intergenerational conflict, the decrease of identifiable traditional roles and how they have become marginalized and tangential to their own communities.  I believe that this is accomplished by rightfully placing the Anishnawbek experience and constructions of knowledge alongside the recognized processes of postcolonial theory. Each of the four chapters reflects the process of my journey and the Anishnabe blessings and teachings that I have received by the Anishnawbek Elders and people of Sagamok.  The research process and methodology that I used in this study are a (simultaneous) process of coming to know the Anishnawbek ways of interpreting relationships and responsibilities.